Plarium is holding back these critical tidbits of info on purpose. 😔
I asked for all the requirements (from 1 to 30) and they told me that they don't have them. I am sure that the devs have those (how could they not?), but I don't have a contact with them and I have no idea why are they not sharing this.
I got unofficial info from my BH leader, which says 5 more Presidios for each next level, as you suspected, plus downgrading a Bastion of one level below except when that is a protected level. So, to build Bastion 23, you need to downgrade someone's 22, but for 24 there is no such requirement because 23 cannot be downgraded.
This goes all the way to 30, but I cannot guarantee that it's correct because I don't know who gave that info to my leader nor how that person obtained it.
Finally, if that info is correct, you need to hold 55 level 5 Presidios and downgrade a level 29 Bastion to upgrade yours to level 30. That is, IMO, insane: 3 players per persidio if your BH is full is a ridiculous requirement. As a fellow player (so, not speaking as a moderator here), I think that we're not supposed to play it, but that the intention is that all the upgrades are quickly rubied up for some quick Plarium cash.