the Persians history
Persian culture: The Persians had the country scenario to the Plateau of Iran, in Central Asia. Its territory limited by the North, with the Caspian and Turkestan; to the south, with the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, and the West, with Mesopotamia. The Persians lived where now the modern country of Iran is. From the sixth century B.C., the Persians began their conquest of the territories adjacent to them and thus formed one of the greatest empires of antiquity
geographical location of the Persians
The Persians formed the largest ancient eastern empire, unified several villages of the fertile crescent, its borders extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. They inhabited the plateau of Iran, located east of the region of Mesopotamia, a semiarid region with mineral rich mountains, deserts and few fertile valleys, dry climate, with large temperature fluctuations
Origin of the Persian Empire
From 2000 B.C., the region was occupied by people of shepherds and farmers (Medes and Persians peoples), who saw South of Russia today, these peoples invaded the Plateau of Iran. The Medes settled north of the Plateau of Iran, while the Persians settled in the southeastern part of the plateau of Iran near the Persian Gulf.
The first inhabitants of the Plateau of Iran devoted to grazing and agriculture in these fertile valleys, they developed the cultivation of cereals, fruits and vegetables. The region was also rich
in minerals, which led them to manufacture metal tools to enhance agricultural production and the art of war in the mountains they found iron, copper, silver, etc.
Formation of the Persian Empire
In the eighth century B.C., the Medes had a kingdom with an organized army, which dominated the Iranian peoples and Persians, thus forcing them to pay taxes. In 550 B.C. (VI century B.C.), Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid dynasty of, led a rebellion against the Medes, victorious, brought over his domain and influence all the tribes who lived in the Plateau of Iran. From his government began to form the Persian empire. Cyrus the Great led the Persians to the expansion, conquering many regions, and thus fix the increase in population and food needs, since the region of Iran not fully supplied to his empire.
Cyrus the Great, founder of Persian empire, after defeating the Medes and assimilate, to all peoples of the Iranian plateau, was launched to the conquest of the kingdoms of Lydia and the Greek cities of Asia Minor. In 539 B.C. the Persians conquered the region of Mesopotamia. Cyrus the Great ordered the return of the Jews to Palestine region and being finished the Babylonian captivity. The Persians joined the Persian empire to all Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and Palestine
Cyrus the Great died in combat, 529 B.C., and was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, with a large army conquered Egypt in 525 B.C. in the battle of Fluff. to return to Persia, Cambyses was killed in an internal revolt. He was succeeded by his son Darius the Great.
Declinio the Persian Empire
The great ambition of the Persian emperor Darius I, was the conquest of Greece. Thus they begin the so-called Persian Wars, which would face the Persians and Greeks. The First War Medica would result in the defeat of the Persians in 490 B.C. at the Battle of Marathon, the Greek cities led by Athens were victorious over the forces of the Persian empire, this marked the end of the ambitions of Darius I in mainland Greece, although large the territory of his empire in the Aegean islands .
After the death of Darius I, his son Xerxes tempted to subdue the Greeks. This military campaign would start the Second Medical War also end in victory for the Greeks led by Hellenic cities of Athens and Sparta. From there, the Persian emperors had enormous difficulties pair maintain control over their domains, there was a multiplication of revolts, coups and political intrigue in the Empire. These factors contributed to the declinio the Empire, which would be conquered in 330 B.C., by the army of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedonia).
Development of the Persian Wars:
first medical war (492-490 BC.)
- The first medical War began with the invasion of Persian to Greece, during World War Medica or Greco-Persian, which began in the year 492 BC and ended with the victory of the Athenians in the decisive Battle of Marathon in the year 490 BC.
- The Persian invasion consists of two distinct campaigns, which were ordered by the Persian king Darius I, mainly in order to punish the city-states of Athens and Eretria since these cities had supported the cities jonias during their rebellion against Persian domination in Asia minor, thus incurring the wrath of the Persian ruler Darius I. the emperor Darius also saw the opportunity to extend its empire in Europe, and thus secure its western border.
- The first campaign in 492. C., led by Mardonius, re-subjugate achievement Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia. However, it could not move forward when Mardonius's fleet was destroyed by a storm off the coast of Mount Athos. The following year, having demonstrated their intentions, Darius sent ambassadors to all parts of Greece, demanding their submission. Obtained favorable responses from many Greek cities, with the exception of Athens and Sparta, both cities executed the Persian ambassadors. With a defiant Athens and Sparta now effectively at war with him, Darius ordered a military campaign for the following year.
- The second campaign, in 490 BC, was under the command of Datis and Artafernes. The expedition went first to the Naxos island, which is captured and burned. Then I went round the rest of the Cyclades Islands, annexing the Persian empire. Arriving in Greece, the expedition landed at Eretria, which besieged, and after a short time, captured. Eretria was razed and its citizens enslaved. Finally, the Persian armed group went to Attica, landed at Marathon, en route to Athens. There, they were greeted by a small Athenian army, which nevertheless gained remarkable victory in the Battle of Marathon.
- This defeat prevented the successful conclusion of the campaign, and around the Persian expedition to Asia. However, the expedition had met most of its objectives to punish Naxos and Eretria, and subjugate most of the Aegean under Persian rule. Outstanding issues of this campaign led by Darius I gave birth to prepare a larger invasion to Greece, strongly to subjugate and to punish Athens and Sparta. However, infighting within the Persian Empire delayed the expedition, and then Darius I die. So this task was left to his son Xerxes I would carry out the Second Medical War (Second Persian invasion of Greece), from 480 BC.
second medical war (492-479 BC.)
- Medica War II causes the second invasion of the Persian Empire through ancient Greece (480-479 BC) that occurred during the Persian Wars calls or Greco-Persian wars.
- King Xerxes I of Persia, tried to conquer Greece. The invasion was a direct but delayed the defeat of the first Persian expedition to Greece (492-490 BC) at the Battle of Marathon which ended with intenetos of Darius I of Persia to subjugate Greece. After the death of Darius, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for the second invasion, by gathering a huge army and naval armada. The Athenians and Spartans led the Greek resistance, with around 70 city-states that joined the Allied efforts. However, most Greek cities remained neutral or submitted to Xerxes.
- The invasion began in the spring of 480 BC, when the Persian army crossed the Hellespont and marched through Thrace and Macedonia to Thessaly, whose cities surrendered to Xerxes. The Persian advance was blocked in the passage of Thermopylae by an Allied force under King Leonidas I of Sparta, at the same time, the Persian fleet was blocked by an Allied fleet in the Strait of Artemis. In the famous Battle of Thermopylae, the Allied army brake the Persian army for two days before being attacked by the flank from a mountain pass, after which the Allied rearguard was caught in the pass and annihilated. Allied fleet had also withstood two days of Persian attacks at the Battle of Artemisium, but when news came of the disaster at Thermopylae, withdrew to Salamis.
- After Thermopylae, all Boeotia and Attica fell into Persian hands, they captured and burned Athens. However, a larger army fortified ally the narrow Isthmus of Corinth, protecting the Peloponnesus from Persian conquest. Both sides sought a decisive naval victory that could alter the course of the war. The Athenian general Themistocles succeeded in luring the Persian navy at Salamis Strait, where the large number of Persian ships caused a disorganization and they were defeated by the allied Greek fleet. The Allied victory at Salamis prevented a rapid conclusion of the invasion, and fear of being trapped in Europe, Xerxes retreated to Asia leaving his general Mardonius to complete the conquest with the elite of the army.
- The following spring, the Greek allies assembled the largest army army marched north of the Isthmus, to try to defeat Mardonio. In the ensuing Battle of Plataea, the Greek infantry again proved its superiority, inflicting a severe defeat on the Persians, killing Mardonius in the process. On the same day, across the Aegean Sea an allied Greek navy destroyed the remnants of the Persian army at the Battle of Mycale. With this double defeat, the invasion was completed, and the Persian power in the Aegean severely damaged. The Greeks would now offensively.
Third War, Medica (479-449 B.C.)
- Third Medical War occurred in the year 479 to 449 B.C. during the reign of King Artaxerxes of Persia.
- After the Second Medical War, Athens and Greece began its reconstruction. The Greek cities joined the Delian League in order to protect future Persian aggression and to liberate the Greek colonies of Asia Minor. Each of the member cities of the confederation contributed money, weapons and soldiers.
- The Confederation of Delos resolved to continue the war against the Persians, and entrusted the command Cimon. Sparta cops withdrew from the conflict disgruntlement with the polis of Athens.
- Kimon achieved expel the Persians in Thrace, then make its way to Asia Minor, he revolted Hellenic cities; He defeated and destroyed the Persian forces in the year 465 BC The battle continued for more than twenty years, until Artaxerxes signed the Treaty 449 B.C. which recognized the independence of the Hellenic colonies of Asia Minor and the Greek sovereignty over the Aegean Sea.
- Medical wars come to fruition by the conditions imposed by the Greeks to the Persian Empire, which were:
* Obligation to withdraw definitively the Persians in their conquest and expansion into Greece.
* No return to navigate the Aegean (Greek exclusivity)
* They are allowed to trade with the Greek colonies of Asia Minor.
Causes of Wars, Medical
- Causes of the Persian Wars: the name of medical Wars is given, the period of struggles that held the Greeks against the Persians and Medes between 500 BC to 449 BC, in which stood menifiesto the value and Greek Heroismo in defense of freedom and democracy against absolutism and despotism of the Persian ruler system. Below the causes of the Persian Wars
Causes of the Persian Wars
I. Ambition Persian conquest.
II. Cravings Persian rule in the islands of the Mediterranean.
III. Persian desire to incorporate their domains Greece.
IV. The opposition between systems of government: Greek democracy, against the Persian despostismo.
- The pretext: the pretext for the outbreak of this war was the revolt in Asia Minor, the Greek colony of Miletus, held by the Persians, who helped the Athenians, proceeded to burn the city of Sardis, capital of the satrapy Lydia, while exhorting the other Greek colonies in this area, to emancipate themselves from the Persian imperial domination. However, this rebellion was violently quelled by Darius who swear revenge on the Athenians for having helped to Miletus in sublevacuiion. Such was the hatred that starting then, keep the Great King against the Greeks who, it is said, commissioned a servant to when the food will repeat this phrase: "Lord, remember the Athenians".
Consequences of the Persian Wars
- Consequences of the Persian Wars: Medical Wars caused a shift of power from East to West, because of the victory of the Greeks strengthened their dominance to the Persian empire: These are the most striking consequences of the Persian Wars.
Consequences of the Persian Wars
1. libero to Western culture (Greece) danger of authoritarian Asian (Persian Empire)
2. The city-state of Athens became the most powerful and rector of the destinations of the Greek world city.
3. The Athenians managed the maritime control of the Mediterranean Sea, thus forming a maritime empire that Athens would lead to a remarkable intellectual, artistic, economic and political "Age of Pericles" progress.
4. The Greek colonies in Asia Minor, regained its independence from the Persian empire.
5. The fame of military power and dominance of Athens, cause the Peloponnesian War between the city-states of Athens and Sparta.
6. The Persian empire would enter into decline.
7. democratrico and patriotic spirit of the Greek people who, after the peoples of the rest of Europe and the West should we inherit deepened.
The economy of the Persian culture was based on agriculture, with irrigation water from the mountains, grazing and mineral extraction. The Persians had extensive trade, helped by the creation of coins, daric minted gold which stimulated the domestic and international trade.
With the formation of the empire, trade happened to be an important activity, giving rise to a group of wealthy merchants. For the region Iranian trade caravans passed routes linked to India and China to the Mediterranean Sea. Boost trade industry luxury fabrics, jewelry, mosaics and rugs or carpets of great beauty
Social Organization of Persia
Persian society was divided into rigid social classes. At the top of the social pyramid the King and his family, below the royal aristocracy (priests, nobles and great merchants) he was was. Then, the middle class and the popular (small shopkeepers, artisans and soldiers).
The peasants, considered free men, formed the base of the social pyramid, as in them lay much of the support of other social classes. They lived miserably, were exploited as they were forced to surrender almost everything produced on the land. They were also required to serve in the construction of palaces and public works (irrigation canals, roads, etc). Finally, slaves, prisoners of military conquests, formed a large group, who carried out the heaviest work in the construction of palaces and public works.
Religion of Persia
The main religion, created by the Persians was Zoroastrianism. That was a dualistic religion (belief in two gods). God Hormuz (Ahuramazda), representing good; and the god Ahriman, the evil. According to Zoroastrianism, doomsday, expire Hormuz and Ahriman launch the eternal abyss. On that day, the dead rise again, and all men would be judged, the righteous would win heaven and the unrighteous hell. The book contains the teachings of Zoroaster is called Zend-Avesta is the sacred book of the Persians